by Mark Harp
Published first in NEXUS, January 1995 issue
from Nemesi Website
On November 25, 1912 Marshall B. Gardner of Aurora, Kane County, Illinois, USA, submitted his discovery application to the United States Patent Office .
18 months later, on May 12,1914, this federal agency granted Mr. Gardner United States patent 1096102, the second most important scientific document ever issued. Its scientific significance is exceeded only by the mechanical flight discovery of Orville and Wilbur Wright in 1903.
For reasons which even Mr. Gardner could not have fully anticipated in the early 1900s, and which are now abundantly clear, his discovery soon became the most highly classified military secret of all time. In 1913 Gardner wrote his original book proving beyond any doubt that our Earth is a hollow sphere. So voluminous was the evidence which he continued to amass from studies of astronomy and Polar exploration, that he expanded his book to 450 pages in 1920.
The title is A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH’S INTERIOR or HAVE THE POLES REALLY BEEN DISCOVERED?
Although he seems not to have been aware of it, Gardner’s work had incompletely been preceded by William Reed , whose book PHANTOM OF THE POLES was 281 pages and was published in 1906 New York City by the Walter S. Rockey Company. The one shortcoming with Mr. Reed’s theory, otherwise very intelligently developed, was that he had failed to finish his centrifugal force reasoning regarding Earth’s formation As a result, he was never able to logically account for the powerful source of heat and illumination present in the Earth’s Interior.
Gardner , on the other hand, did account for this source. The difference is that whereas Reed confined his research strictly to Polar exploration, Gardner augmented this with studies of astronomy. The majority of this article will be testimony from the real experts, the people who were there at the huge telescopes and especially there in those vast and previously mysterious Polar regions. But first, this is the common sense theory responsible for United States patent 1096102.
In the beginning, some 4 or 5 billion years ago, when the Earth was still an enormously expanded ball of super-hot whirling gas, it gradually began to contract as it cooled. The laws of physics require cooling gases to condense and so the rapidly spinning sphere of tenuous gases began to concentrate as the heat loss continued. Self-centered gravitational attraction kept reducing the diameter of the whirling ball of cooling material…but only to a certain extent. This is the big logical distinction between the old inadequate theory of planetary formation and Gardner’s discovery.
The old notion would have us believe that the gravitational contraction continued unabated until the Earth had become molten hot under a fierce gravitational pressure. While such a scenario undoubtedly does routinely occur in the celestial evolution of particularly immense bodies, as is the case with all stars, it is definitely not the final development of typical planets.
The crucial second factor to lay stress on is centrifugal force. Remember that while gravity is attempting to draw all of the material toward the center, there is an opposing force also at work centrifugal force. Just as a figure skater spins much more rapidly when she brings her outstretched arms tightly in against her body, so too did the ever contracting proto-planet begin rotating ever more rapidly as its size decreased.
Like the glued water in a bucket that refuses to spill if one swings the bucket in a fast circle, so too was this same law of motion centrifugal force attempting to hurl all of the material outward from the forming planet’s axis of rotation. So finally, in this silent titanic struggle between two natural forces, a balance was struck. When the swiftly whirling sphere had drawn itself down to an approximately 8000 mile diameter, the compromise between gravitational and centrifugal force was reached. But there is more.
There is a special characteristic of centrifugal force and we must not overlook this important trait. The strength of ’ c ’ force becomes greatly lessened as it approaches right angles to the direction of spin. A simple day-to-day example of this behavior is water in a basin. If you remove the drain plug and allow the water to start emptying from the basin, what will you eventually observe? A vortex or whirlpool, an empty space surrounded by rapidly rotating material. Now imagine this same principal in action concerning the contracting body which was to become our Earth.
At right angles to the rotational axis, in other words the ’poles’, the c force was considerably weaker than elsewhere, especially the equator, therefore although at the Earth’s equator the c force was able to halt the material’s inward progress at about an 8000 mile diameter, it was considerably less successful in the Polar regions, there stopping the contraction at about 1400 miles. The inevitable outcome of this natural compromise is that our planet concluded its evolution and solidified as an 8000 mile hollow sphere with 1400 mile diameter Polar Openings.
Now it is at this stage in the logic that Gardner advances and Reed falters. Because of his study of astronomical records and photography as specifically relating to nebula and comets, Gardner became aware of the whole truth. In the precise center of these translucent spheres is a proportionally small incandescent ball. Between this luminous interior orb and the shell of the nebula is a large intervening space; said another way, the nebula is hollow except for the bright sphere in its center. Why? Well, where is the one other location at at which c force is quite weak, besides at the poles?
The answer of course is at the precise center of rotation, and once again the logic is so straightforward that we may readily examine a common household example to support the argument. What would be the result if you sprinkled a layer of powder upon the top of a record player and then turned the record on high speed? The powder would fly off of the record…except for a small portion at the precise center.
Based upon his studies of the planetary nebula through observatory photographs, Gardner was able to surmise that the very thick shell of the Earth is approximately 800 miles thick, the Polar Openings 1400 miles across, and the gravitationally suspended Central Sun (the incandescent orb locked by gravity in the exact planetary center) some 600 miles diameter. Because of the enormity and very gradual curve of the Polar Aperture, it is impossible to visually detect it; this is the same as the fact that we do not ’see’ that the Earth itself is round. The curve is much too gradual to observe.
Based on the nearly constant merger of warm interior air with very cold exterior Polar air, the Polar Openings are almost always covered by a thick cloud layer. This explains why when viewed from satellites the openings look just as they would if there actually were the mythical ’polar ice caps’ which government policy claims are at the Earth’s extremities. Gardner was led inexorably to his monumental science discovery by the vast quantity of inconsistent information which he continually encountered during his years of study dealing with, especially, high Arctic expeditions.
Chief among the numerous mysteries are,
1) a dramatically improving climate in the very far north
2) the extreme peculiarity of the famous Northern Lights or Aurora Borealis
3) the eccentric behavior of the compass in very high latitudes
We shall now proceed to hear from many witnesses who forfeited much comfort, convenience, and in several cases their lives, in order that we may fully understand the true greatness of our world, a world vastly more spectacular than officially acknowledged.
In the preface of THREE YEARS OF ARCTIC SERVICE , Lt. Adolphus Greely of the U.S. Army expresses the amazement of his Lady Franklin Bay expedition at the strange conditions they experienced in the far north:
“Fearing exaggeration, I have occasionally modified statements and opinions entered in my original journal, believing it better to underrate than enlarge the wonders of the Arctic regions, which have been too often questioned.”
Before focusing on our own world, let us look briefly at some of our interesting neighbors in Space. Renowned astronomer Percival Lowell comments on page 33 of MARS:
“…round what we know to be the planet’s pole, appeared to be a great white cap…It proceeded slowly to dwindle in size…As summer comes on, they dwindle gradually away, till by early autumn they present but tiny patches a few hundred miles across …As it melted, a dark band appeared surrounding it on all sides…it was the darkest marking upon the disk, and was of a blue color.”
The temptation to think of this blue perimeter as water must be avoided because if this were indeed prodigious volumes of water, it would frequently be coursing through the many ancient riverbeds which crisscross the dry Martian surface. These riverbeds are permanently dry. Instead what we are really observing is the optical effect of vast cloud masses moving over the curving sides of the Martian polar aperture. The exterior of Mars experiences changing seasons; the interior does not. The degree to which atmospheric moisture and temperature vary at the pole, where the differing climates converge, will determine the amount to which the immense blue ring will manifest itself in terrestrial telescopes.
Being unaware of the true configuration of Mars, Lowell naturally believed that this blue polar band had to be water melted from an ice cap. In this assumption, though incorrect, he showed his wisdom. Unlike our present government policy, he knew absolutely that the pole of Mars cannot be carbon dioxide .
"Faraday made experiments on the relation of the congealing point of carbonic acid gas to the pressure…He further found that the curve for the liquefaction point lay very close to that for the congealing point, and approached yet closer as the pressure decreased. In other words, the gas passed almost immediately from the gaseous to the solid state… Now the pressure is certainly very slight on the surface of Mars… In consequence, on a rise of temperature the frozen carbonic acid gas would there pass practically straight from the solid into the gaseous state. Now, from the existence of the surrounding polar sea, we remark that in the substance composing the polar caps of Mars this does not occur.
A considerable portion of it is always in the transition state of a liquid. Carbonic dioxide would not thus tarry: water would." Lowell made a particularly fascinating observation of the north polar opening when, for a short period, a portion of the usual cloud cover parted, thereby allowing beams of light from Mars’ central sun to project beyond the orifice. "Meanwhile an interesting phenomenon occurred in the cap on June 7…as I was watching the planet, I saw suddenly two points like stars flash out in the midst of the polar cap.
Dazzlingly bright upon the duller white background of the snow, these stars shone for a few moments and then slowly disappeared. The seeing at the time was very good… But though no intelligence lay behind the action of these lights, they were none the less startling for being Nature’s own flash lights across one hundred millions of miles of space.
It had taken them nine minutes to make the journey;… On comparing its position with Green’s map of his observations upon the cap at Madeira in 1877, it appeared that this was the identical position of the spot where he had seen star points then, and where Mitchell had seen them in 1846, …Meanwhile the cap had been steadily decreasing in size,… On October 12, at 10h.40m.,… Mr. Douglas measured its position and estimated its size, as was his wont every few days.
He found it to be six degrees distant from the planet’s pole… On looking at the planet on October 13, at 8h.15m., to his surprise he found the cap gone. Not a trace of it could be seen;… What had certainly been there on the 12th was not there on the 13th. The ice-cap had disappeared."
Robert Powers remarks in MARS: OUR FUTURE ON THE RED PLANET:
“There seem to be vast quantities of water in the polar caps,…Like the ice caps of Earth, they are bright white.”
Thomas McDonough says in SPACE: THE NEXT 25 YEARS:
’Mars also has large, bright ice caps, which can even be seen from the Earth with a good telescope."
In THE GREATEST CHALLENGE: The Incredible Adventure and Splendid Destiny Man in Exploring Space Martin Caidin notes that:
“Both American and Russian astronomers in recent years have observed a series of very bright flashes, lasting about five minutes, and followed by mushroomshaped clouds.”
Original Moon explorer Michael Collins writes in MISSION TO MARS:
“A greater mystery is what happened to all the water and ice that gouged out those huge channels billions of years ago. Mars has a strong enough gravitational field to hold water vapor in its atmosphere rather than allow it to escape into space…What happened to all the water that carved out deep channels?”
John Noble Wilford says in MARS BECKONS:
“Mariners 6 and 7 …The camera photographed a hood of clouds over the south polar cap, and infrared instruments measured temperatures there as low as 193 degrees Fahrenheit… The infrared spectrometer had appeared to detect temperatures at the edge of the south polar ice cap that were much too high to be from frozen carbon dioxide… scientists could see by the Soviet document that the range of possibilities for the 1994 flight was wide and challenging. Under serious consideration were plans to place two spacecraft into orbits of Mars passing over the poles.”
On page 22 of the March-April 1992 Final Frontier are some remarks about the planet nearest to the Sun, Mercury:
“…temperatures that climb as high as 800 degrees Fahrenheit… Researchers at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena have identified what they believe is a water ice cap more than 180 miles in diameter on Mercury’s north pole… the researchers saw a bright area at the north pole… ’We were amazed’.”