Fractional Reserve Banking Steals Our Money
Originally humans bartered goods and traded without money. But since not everyone wanted a cow, or apples, or lumber, and since most commodities have a limited shelf life, or are not easily divisible, or portable, merchants demanded a common medium of exchange such as gold, or more commonly silver. These commodities fulfilled the requirements of money: being easily divisible, durable, portable and valuable. The biblical word for money is “silver.”
Gold and Silver Receipts
But a problem arose: Where do you store your gold and silver to protect it from thieves? In a bank. The bank then issued depositors a receipt or note telling them that they had a quantity of gold or silver in the bank vault. It was a paper IOU that could be redeemed for something of value (called a Silver Certificate or a Gold Certificate). Today these IOUs are called “Federal Reserve Notes” – not “Silver Certificates” or “Gold Certificates.” The “Federal” Reserve Bank is not part of the federal government. It is a private bank that UNCONSTITUTIONALLY prints America’s money. The U.S. Treasury should create our money according to our Constitution. Article 1:8 says “Congress shall have power to coin money and regulate the value thereof.” In the past, “Federal Reserve Notes” were redeemable in gold or silver, but those words were taken off the bills. This is also UNCONSTITUTIONAL. Article 1:10 says “Nothing but gold and silver” shall be used for money. Why? It can’t be inflated, like paper currency. Coins should be made of silver or gold, but now are just base-metal tokens. Tokens can be inflated. “Paper money is theft” – George Washington. “There is no legal tender … in this country … but gold and silver” – Daniel Webster. “Thy silver is become dross, thy wine mixed with water” (Isa. 1:22). Leviticus 19:35-37 says, “You shall do no wrong in judgment, in measures of length or weight or quantity. You shall have just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just hin: I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt. And you shall observe all my statutes and all my ordinances, and do them: I am the Lord."
How Banks Steal From Us
But as banks collected all the gold and silver in the community, they discovered that only a few depositors at any one time came to withdraw their bullion. Therefore, the banks could safely lend out 90% of their depositor’s gold and silver and make money by doing so, provided there was no run on the bank. Thus, a bank is allowed to create out of thin air nine times the amount of money it holds in reserve. This Fractional Reserve Banking actually lends money into existence thereby making each note already in existence have less purchasing power. New money STEALS value from the existing money supply. Consumers willingly participate in this THEFT by using credit cards, or taking out student loans, or securing mortgage debt or just by consumer borrowing. Even government borrowing is paid for through taxes that consumers must pay. The Treasury creates a bond, a debt. They sell it to the Federal Reserve, which credits the Treasury with Federal Reserve Notes. The Treasury must pay back that bond debt plus interest. Since only the debt money exists, more debts must be created to pay the old debt plus interest. As the Bible says, “The borrower is SERVANT to the lender” and since money is debt and debt is SLAVERY, our money system is a system of SLAVERY.
“If thou lend money to any of my people that is poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as an usurer, neither shalt thou lay upon him usury. If thou at all take thy neighbour’s raiment to pledge, thou shalt deliver it unto him by that the sun goeth down: for that is his covering only, it is his raiment for his skin: wherein shall he sleep? and it shall come to pass, when he crieth unto me, that I will hear; for I am gracious” (Ex. 22:25-27). DAILY HOLDING OF COLLATERAL PREVENTS THE SAME ITEM FROM SECURING MORE THAN ONE LOAN AT A TIME.
Our federal treasury should create all the currency and credit we need without interest. There is not enough money in existence to pay all our interest payments. It is mathematically impossible. The Federal Reserve Bank lends to other banks at interest just as they charge interest to individual borrowers. All of this money-printing causes more and more INFLATION so that the purchasing power of one dollar in 1913 now requires $21.67 to buy the same thing today (2007). There has been a 96% devaluation in 94 years in the value of the dollar.
“Usury” is Charging Interest
“If thou lend money to any of MY PEOPLE that is poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as an USURER, neither shalt thou lay upon him USURY” (Ex. 22:25). “Take thou no USURY of him, or INCREASE: but fear thy God; that thy BROTHER (torah-keeper – Mark 3:35) may live with thee” (Lev. 25:36). “Lord, who shall abide in thy tabernacle? … He that putteth not out his money to USURY” (Ps. 15:1-5). Ezekiel 18:13 speaks of one who “Hath given forth upon USURY, and hath taken INCREASE: shall he then live? he shall not live: he hath done all these abominations; he shall surely die; his blood shall be upon him.” Deuteronomy 23:19 says, “Thou shalt not lend upon USURY to thy BROTHER (torah-keeper – Mark 3:35); USURY of money, USURY of victuals, USURY of any thing that is lent upon USURY.” Even 1% INTEREST is forbidden (Neh. 5:7-11).“The BORROWER is servant to the lender” (Pr. 22:7). “He that by USURY and UNJUST GAIN increaseth his substance, he shall gather it for him that will pity the poor” (Pr. 28:8).
“Unto a STRANGER (Heb. “nokri” – wicked enemy nation who disobeys the torah) thou mayest lend upon USURY; but unto thy BROTHER (torah-keeper – Mark 3:35) thou shalt not lend upon USURY: that the Lord thy God may bless thee” (Deut. 23:20). “Also thou shalt NOT OPPRESS a STRANGER (Heb. “ger” – sojourner in Israel who obeys the torah): for ye know the heart of a stranger, seeing ye were strangers in the land of Egypt” (Ex. 23:9). “Ye shall have one manner of law, as well for the STRANGER (no USURY for torah-keeper), as for one of your own country (no USURY for torah-keeper): for I am the Lord your God” (Lev. 24:22) “And if thy BROTHER be waxen poor, and fallen in decay with thee; then thou shalt relieve him: yea, though he be a STRANGER, or a sojourner; that he may live with thee. Take thou no USURY of him, or INCREASE: but fear thy God; that thy BROTHER (torah-keeper – Mark 3:35) may live with thee. Thou shalt not give him thy money upon USURY, nor lend him thy victuals for INCREASE” (Lev. 25:35-37).
But Christians quote Matthew 25:27 to justify USURY. The way it should be understood, the servant says, “I know you’re a covetous crook, reaping the harvest of others. So I played it safe and hid your money.” The way it should be understood, his master says, “Since that is what you believe, why didn’t you put my money in the bank and obtain more DISHONEST GAIN for me through INTEREST?” Far from justifying usury, this parable actually condemns it (cp. Luke 19:11-27). Another excuse to justify USURY is inflation. Paper money loses its value with time. The purchasing power a Christian gets back will be less than the purchasing power he lent when dealing in paper, even though the amount is nominally the same. But in the first century the money consisted of silver coins. Christian should avoid using diverse weights and measures (paper money and clad coins). A Christian should look on this as a gift to a poor brother and not as a burden. God promises to bless those who are generous. God even told ancient Israel that at the end of every seventh year they were to cancel ALL debts of those who owed them any money (Deuteronomy 15:1). On the other hand, if the money was loaned to someone OUTSIDE the tribes of Israel (who disobeys the torah) there was no command for the creditor to release the debt (verse 3). Furthermore, the laws of the Torah do not even address the regulation of commercial business investment and transactions, but was simply a law of kindness to a fellow member of the same household of faith in a primitive state of society.
The banking scam is therefore, 1. Private banks – not “Federal” – creating money out of nothing which is UNCONSTITUTIONAL 2. This causes inflation which STEALS purchasing power since there is no proportional increase of goods and services. 3. They charge interest on it, CONTRARY TO SCRIPTURE, and 4. No money is created for interest payments (so it becomes a game of musical chairs where someone is left standing without a monetary chair). In order for their debt-based money to function, they must increase debt each year in excess of the debt and interest accrued the year before or they will enter a deflationary death spiral. When debt is created, money is created. When debt is paid off, money is destroyed. The point will soon come when the U.S. either defaults on it’s debt or creates so much more money and debt to keep the cycle going that it causes hyperinflation. That is the problem with compound interest. The hockey-stick moment. The more debt incurred, the less effective it is. There are only two actors needed for this hyperinflation: the lender of last resort (Federal Reserve) and the spender of last resort (the U.S. Government).
The Cause of War
Many wars have been started for no other purpose than to force private central banks onto governments. Notice a few examples now.
The United States fought the Revolutionary War primarily over King George III’s Currency Act, which forced colonists to conduct business using only printed bank notes borrowed from the Bank of England at interest. After the revolution, the new United States adopted a radically different economic system in which the government issued its own value-based money, so that private banks like the Bank of England were not siphoning off the wealth of the people through interest-bearing bank notes. “The refusal of King George 3rd to allow the colonies to operate an honest money system, which freed the ordinary man from the clutches of the money manipulators, was probably the prime cause of the revolution.” – Benjamin Franklin
Then just one year after Mayer Amschel Rothschild spoke these words, “Let me issue and control a nation’s money and I care not who makes the laws”, the bankers used Alexander Hamilton to establish a new Private Central Bank called the First Bank of the United States. Founded in 1791, by the end of its twenty year charter the First Bank of the United States had nearly ruined the nation’s economy in order to make the bankers rich. Congress refused to renew the charter and members signaled their intention to go back to a state-issued value-based currency on which no interest was paid to bankers by the citizenry. This resulted in a threat from Nathan Mayer Rothschild against the US Government, “Either the application for renewal of the charter is granted, or the United States will find itself involved in a most disastrous war.” Congress still refused to renew the charter for the First Bank of the United States, whereupon Nathan Mayer Rothschild railed, “Teach those impudent Americans a lesson! Bring them back to colonial status!” The British Prime Minister at the time, Spencer Perceval was adamently opposed to war with the United States, primarily because the majority of England’s military might was occupied with the ongoing Napoleonic wars. Spencer Perceval was concerned that Britain might not prevail in a new American war, a concern shared by many in the British government. Then, Spencer Perceval was assassinated (the only British Prime Minister to be assassinated in office) and replaced by Robert Banks Jenkinson, the 2nd Earl of Liverpool, who fully supported a war to recapture the colonies. Financed at virtually no interest by the Rothschild controlled Bank of England, Britain then provoked the War of 1812 to recolonize the United States and force Americans back into servitude of the Bank of England, or to plunge the U.S. into so much debt they would be forced to accept a new private central bank. This plan worked. Even though the War of 1812 was won by the United States, Congress was forced to grant a new charter for yet another private bank issuing public currency as loans at interest, the Second Bank of the United States. Once again, private bankers were in control of the nation’s money supply and cared not who made the laws or how many British and American soldiers had to die for it. Incidentally, after the battle of Waterloo in 1815, a Rothschild courier galloped to England and to the stock exchange proclaiming that Napoleon had won. English stocks plummeted. The Rothschilds bought them for pennies on the dollar. That is how they control England today.
When the U.S. again came under their control, the nation was plunged into debt, unemployment, and poverty by the predations of the private central bank, and in 1832 Andrew Jackson successfully campaigned for his second term as President under the slogan, “Jackson And No Bank!” True to his word, Jackson succeeds in blocking the renewal of the charter for the Second Bank of the United States.
“Gentlemen! I too have been a close observer of the doings of the Bank of the United States. I have had men watching you for a long time, and am convinced that you have used the funds of the bank to speculate in the breadstuffs of the country. When you won, you divided the profits amongst you, and when you lost, you charged it to the bank. You tell me that if I take the deposits from the bank and annul its charter I shall ruin ten thousand families. That may be true, gentlemen, but that is your sin! Should I let you go on, you will ruin fifty thousand families, and that would be my sin! You are a den of vipers and thieves. I have determined to rout you out, and by the Eternal, (bringing his fist down on the table) I will rout you out!” (-- Andrew Jackson, shortly before ending the charter of the Second Bank of the United States. From the original minutes of the Philadelphia committee of citizens sent to meet with President Jackson (February 1834), according to Andrew Jackson and the Bank of the United States (1928) by Stan V. Henkels).
Shortly after President Jackson (the only American President to actually pay off the National Debt) ended the Second Bank of the United States, an assassin tried to shoot him. This attempt failed when both pistols used by Richard Lawrence failed to fire. Lawrence later said that with Jackson dead, “Money would be more plenty.” In 1835 Andrew Jackson shut down the central bank. When he finally died, his last words were “I killed the bank.”
Of course, the public school system is as subservient to the bankers’ wishes to keep certain history from you, as the corporate media is subservient to Monsanto’s wishes to keep the dangers of GMOs from you, and the global warming politicians’ wishes to conceal from you that the Earth has actually been cooling for the last 16 years. Thus it should come as no surprise that the real reason for the Civil War is not well known to the average American.
The Cause of America’s Civil War
When the Confederacy seceded from the United States, the bankers once again saw the opportunity for a rich harvest of debt, and offered to fund Lincoln’s efforts to bring the south back into the union, but at 30% interest. Lincoln remarked that he would not free the black man by enslaving the white man to the bankers. Therefore, he issued a new government currency, the greenback, using his authority as President. This was a threat to the wealth and power of the central bankers, who quickly responded.
“If this mischievous financial policy, which has its origin in North America, shall become endurated down to a fixture, then that Government will furnish its own money without cost. It will pay off debts and be without debt. It will have all the money necessary to carry on its commerce. It will become prosperous without precedent in the history of the world. The brains, and wealth of all countries will go to North America. That country must be destroyed or it will destroy every monarchy on the globe.” – The London Times reacting to Lincoln’s decision to issue government Greenbacks to finance the Civil War, rather than agree to private banker’s loans at 30% interest. In 1872 New York bankers sent a letter to every bank in the United States, urging them to fund newspapers that opposed government-issued money (Lincoln’s greenbacks).
“Dear Sir: It is advisable to do all in your power to sustain such prominent daily and weekly newspapers… as will oppose the issuing of greenback paper money, and that you also withhold patronage or favors from all applicants who are not willing to oppose the Government issue of money. Let the Government issue the coin and the banks issue the paper money of the country… [T]o restore to circulation the Government issue of money, will be to provide the people with money, and will therefore seriously affect your individual profit as bankers and lenders.” (-- Triumphant plutocracy; the story of American public life from 1870 to 1920, by Lynn Wheeler) “It will not do to allow the greenback, as it is called, to circulate as money any length of time, as we cannot control that.” (-- Triumphant plutocracy; the story of American public life from 1870 to 1920, by Lynn Wheeler) “Slavery is likely to be abolished by the war power, and chattel slavery destroyed. This, I and my European friends are in favor of, for slavery is but the owning of labor and carries with it the care for the laborer, while the European plan, led on by England, is for capital to control labor by controlling the wages. THIS CAN BE DONE BY CONTROLLING THE MONEY.” (-- Triumphant plutocracy; the story of American public life from 1870 to 1920, by Lynn Wheeler)
Goaded by the private bankers, much of Europe supported the Confederacy against the Union, expecting that victory over Lincoln would mean the end of the Greenback. France and Britain considered an outright attack on the United States to aid the confederacy, but were held at bay by Russia, which had just ended the serfdom system and had a state central bank similar to the system the United States had been founded on. Left free of European intervention, the Union won the war, and Lincoln announced he would keep on issuing Greenbacks. Following Lincoln’s assassination, the Greenbacks were pulled from circulation and the American people forced to go back to an economy based on bank notes borrowed at interest from the private bankers. Tsar Alexander II, who authorized Russian military assistance to Lincoln, was subsequently the victim of multiple attempts on his life in 1866, 1879, and 1880, until his assassination in 1881.
The Federal Reserve
Finally, in 1913, the Private Central Bankers of Europe, in particular the Rothschilds of Great Britain and the Warburgs of Germany, met with their American financial collaborators on Jekyll Island, Georgia to form a new banking cartel with the express purpose of forming the Third Bank of the United States, with the aim of placing complete control of the United States money supply once again under the control of private bankers. Owing to hostility over the previous banks, the name was changed to “The Federal Reserve” system in order to grant the new bank a quasi-governmental image, but in fact it is a privately owned bank, no more “Federal” than Federal Express. Indeed, in 2012, the Federal Reserve attempted to rebuff a Freedom of Information Lawsuit by Bloomberg News on the grounds that as a private banking corporation and not actually a part of the government, the Freedom of Information Act did not apply to the “trade secret” operations of the Federal Reserve. 1913 proved to be a transformative year for the nation’s economy, first with the passage of the 16th “income tax” Amendment and the false claim that it had been ratified.
“I think if you were to go back and try to find and review the ratification of the 16th amendment, which was the internal revenue, the income tax, I think if you went back and examined that carefully, you would find that a sufficient number of states never ratified that amendment.” - U.S. District Court Judge James C. Fox, Sullivan Vs. United States, 2003. Our government pays back the Fed with income tax that is collected by the IRS.
Later that same year, and apparently unwilling to risk another questionable amendment, Congress passed the Federal Reserve Act over Christmas holiday 1913, while members of Congress opposed to the measure were at home. This was a very underhanded deal, as the Constitution explicitly vests Congress with the authority to issue the public currency, does not authorize its delegation, and thus should have required a new Amendment to transfer that authority to a private bank. But Congress did pass it anyway, and President Woodrow Wilson signed it as he promised the bankers he would in exchange for generous campaign contributions. Wilson later regretted that decision.
“I am a most unhappy man. I have unwittingly ruined my country. A great industrial nation is now controlled by its system of credit. We are no longer a government by free opinion, no longer a government by conviction and the vote of the majority, but a government by the opinion and duress of a small group of dominant men.” – Woodrow Wilson 1919
Britain Gave Palestine to Jews in Exchange For the U.S. Entering World War One on Britain’s Side
The next year, 1914, World War One started, and it is important to remember that prior to the creation of the Federal Reserve, there was no such thing as a world war. World War One started between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, but quickly shifted to focus on Germany, whose industrial capacity was seen as an economic threat to Great Britain, who saw the decline of the British Pound as a result of too much emphasis on financial activity to the neglect of agriculture, industrial development, and infrastructure (not unlike the present day United States). Russia, Britain and France got into World War One because of economics. Although pre-war Germany had a private central bank, it was heavily restricted and inflation kept to reasonable levels. Under government control, investment was guaranteed to internal economic development, and Germany was seen as a major power. By 1916, Germany had all but won this World War. The British had run out of ammunition and food because of German submarines. Zionist bankers had been supporting Germany up to this time against Czarist Russia since the Jews, who were Communists, didn’t like Czarist Russia. The Jewish bankers told the British that they would switch sides and guarantee the assistance of the U.S. if Britain would give Palestine to the Jews after the war. The Balfour Declaration was given by the British as consideration to the Jews for getting the U.S. into the war on Britain’s side. So, in the dominant Jewish media of the day, Germany was portrayed as the villain and prime opponent of World War One, and not just defeated, but its industrial base flattened.
Following the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay the war costs of all the participating nations, even though Germany had not actually started the war. This amounted to three times the value of all of Germany itself. Germany’s private central bank, to whom Germany had gone deeply into debt to pay the costs of the war, broke free of government control, and massive inflation followed (mostly triggered by currency speculators), permanently trapping the German people in endless debt. By 1917, the Jewish Communists had taken control of Moscow. Wealthy Jews also bought up German real eastate after the war for pennys on the dollar.
By 1919-1920, Germans resented the reparations and saw the Jews as disloyal citizens who sold out Germany for the Balfour Declaration. Jews were held responsible for Germany losing World War One. It was at this time that Germans began to work against these Communist Jews. They lost their aristocratic status in Germany at this time.
The German Miracle
When the Weimar Republic collapsed economically, it opened the door for the National Socialists to take power. Their first financial move was to issue their own state currency which was not borrowed from private central bankers. Freed from having to pay interest on the money in circulation, Germany blossomed and quickly began to rebuild its industry. The media called it “The German Miracle”. Germany’s state-issued value based currency was also a direct threat to the wealth and power of the private central banks, and as early as 1933 they started to organize a global boycott against Germany to strangle this upstart ruler who thought he could break free of private central bankers! By 1933, Samuel Untermyer gave Germany an ultimatum and declared a “holy war” against Germany and organized a Jewish boycott of all their exports to other countries. Any store with products “Made in Germany” was boycotted by Jews. This threw many Germans out of work. Since less products were exported, less food was able to be imported by Germany. Nevertheless, Germany persisted and TIME magazine lionized Hitler for the amazing improvement in life for the German people and the explosion of German industry, and even named him TIME Magazine’s Man Of The Year in 1938.
Once again, Germany’s industrial output became a threat to Great Britain. “Should Germany merchandise (do business) again in the next 50 years we have led this war (WW1) in vain” - Winston Churchill in The Times (1919). “We will force this war upon Hitler, if he wants it or not.” - Winston Churchill (1936 broadcast). “Germany becomes too powerful. We have to crush it.” - Winston Churchill (November 1936 speaking to US - General Robert E. Wood). “This war is an English war and its goal is the destruction of Germany” - Winston Churchill (- Autumn 1939 broadcast).
As had been the case in World War One, Great Britain and other nations, threatened by Germany’s economic power and success, looked for an excuse to go to war, and as public anger in Germany grew over the boycott, Hitler foolishly gave them that excuse. Years later, in a spirit of candor, the real reasons for that war were made clear. “The war wasn’t only about abolishing fascism, but to conquer sales markets. We could have, if we had intended so, prevented this war from breaking out without doing one shot, but we didn’t want to”- Winston Churchill to Truman (Fultun, USA March 1946). “Germany’s unforgivable crime before WW2 was its attempt to loosen its economy out of the world trade system and to build up an independent exchange system from which the world-finance couldn’t profit anymore. …We butchered the wrong pig” -Winston Churchill (The Second World War - Bern, 1960).
Smedley Butler Was A Muscle-Man For Bankers
As a side note, we need to step back before WW2 and recall Marine Major General Smedley Butler. In 1933, Wall Street bankers and financiers had bankrolled the successful coups by both Hitler and Mussolini. Brown Brothers Harriman in New York was financing Hitler right up to the day war was declared with Germany. And they decided that a fascist dictatorship in the United States based on the one in Italy would be far better for their business interests than Roosevelt’s “New Deal” which threatened massive wealth re-distribution to recapitalize the working and middle class of America. So the Wall Street tycoons recruited General Butler to lead the overthrow of the US Government and install a “Secretary of General Affairs” who would be answerable to Wall Street and not the people, would crush social unrest and shut down all labor unions. General Butler pretended to go along with the scheme but then exposed the plot to Congress. Congress, then as now in the pocket of the Wall Street bankers, refused to act. When Roosevelt learned of the planned coup he demanded the arrest of the plotters, but the plotters simply reminded Roosevelt that if any one of them were sent to prison, their friends on Wall Street would deliberatly collapse the still-fragile economy and blame Roosevelt for it. Roosevelt was thus unable to act until the start of WW2, at which time he prosecuted many of the plotters under the Trading With The Enemy act. The Congressional minutes into the coup were finally released in 1967 and became the inspiration for the movie, “Seven Days in May” but with the true financial villains erased from the script.
“I spent 33 years and four months in active military service as a member of our country’s most agile military force – the Marine Corps. I served in all commissioned ranks from second lieutenant to Major General. And during that period I spent more of my time being a high–class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and for the bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism. I suspected I was just a part of a racket at the time. Now I am sure of it. Like all members of the military profession I never had an original thought until I left the service. My mental faculties remained in suspended animation while I obeyed the orders of the higher-ups. This is typical with everyone in the military service. Thus I helped make Mexico and especially Tampico safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street. The record of racketeering is long. I helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of Brown Brothers in 1909-12. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for American sugar interests in 1916. In China in 1927 I helped see to it that the Standard Oil went its way unmolested. During those years, I had, as the boys in the back room would say, a swell racket. I was rewarded with honors, medals and promotion. Looking back on it, I feel I might have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate his racket in three city districts. I operated on three continents.” – General Smedley Butler, former US Marine Corps Commandant,1935
Kennedy Was Assassinated By Bankers For Generating Constitutional Honest Money
As President, John F. Kennedy understood the predatory nature of private central banking. He understood why Andrew Jackson fought so hard to end the Second Bank of the United States. So Kennedy wrote and signed Executive Order 11110 on June 4th 1963, which ordered the US Treasury to issue a new public currency, the United States Note – without going through the Federal Reserve. Kennedy said,“We are opposed around the world by a monolithic structure and ruthless conspiracy that relies primarily on covert means for expanding its sphere of influence: on infiltration instead of invasion, on subversion instead of elections, on intimidation instead of free choice. It is a system which has constructed vast human and material resources into the building of a tightly knit, highly efficient machine that combines military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, scientific and political operations. Its operations are concealed …”